Pʊtɔma kalʊʊ

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Pʊtɔma kalʊʊ, tɔmpiye nɖɩ ɖɩwɛna tɔbɩŋ nɩɣ ndɩ ndɩ, tɔm kɛdʊʊ-ɖʊ se ɖɩlɩna latɛŋ kʊnʊŋ tɛ kɛnɛ probabilitas, kɛlɛ ɛha siɣye nɛ tɔmpiye ndɩ ɖɩɖɩ paya-ɖɩ se tovonum yɔ, pɩkɛ kpeɣʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ. Kpeɣʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩpɩsɩ piliŋa sɔsɔ nakayɛ kɛ tʊʊzʊʊ hɔɔlʊʊ taa kɛlɛ paya se kpeɣʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ.

Wɛɛ kpeɣʊʊ tɔm kɛ ñʊʊ siŋ ŋgʊ kɩwɛ kpaɣ 0 ŋtalɩ 1. Yee ñʊʊ ŋgʊ kɩkpaɣla, mbʊ ɖɔɖɔ ɖʊzɩm pɩzɩɣ kɩpaɣlɩ yaa ñʊʊ leleŋ ɖɔʊ, nɛ mbʊ ɖɔɖɔ wɛɛ paɣlʊʊ. Akpeɣ tʊmɩyɛ ɖɩtatɩɩ leɖɩta tʊʊzʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ tɩnaa cɔlɔ. Kpeɣʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩpaɣlɩ lɔŋ lɔŋ kpaɣ kpaɣɖʊ 18 wɛɛ taa pɩtɩŋna yem kpɛlɛkɩtʊ yɔɔ kɔzɩ kɔzɩ putoyidaa aleɣya yɔɔ. Mbʊ yebina nɛ tʊʊzʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ tɩnaa ka ñʊʊ piŋ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɖɩ ɖɩ-yɔɔ kɛlɛ pɩkɔɔ pɩwazɩɣ hɔɔlɩŋ lɛɛŋ ndɩ ndɩ taa ɛzɩ ɛsɔkaɣ taa ɖɔnɛ kpɛlɛkʊʊ, liidiye hɔɔlʊʊ taa yaa kpɛlɩ kpɛlɛkʊʊ hɔɔlʊʊ.

Ɖʊzʊʊ tɔmʊʊ lɩwa, kajalaɣ kɛ kpɛɣʊʊ kpɛlɛkɩtʊ ɖeɖe lɛ, ɖɩlɩ kpaɣɖʊ 12 wɛɛ taa, se pɩsa nɛ patakɩ tadɩyɛ nɩnaʊ tɔm nɛ Pierre Jean Olivi nɩnaʊ tɔm, nɛ ɖɩpaɣlɩ kpaɣɖʊ 16, alɩwaatʊ ndʊ pekpeɣli nesi ñɩɣ takayasɩ kpeekpe pɩlɩna teŋuu nɔɔ tɔm yɔɔ. Maɣzɩm cikpem nabʊyʊ pɩlɩna Girolamo Cardano yɔɔ kpaɣ kpaɣɖʊ 16 wɛɛ taa, nɛ Galilée kpaɣɖʊ 17, keekee tɛ kpaɣʊʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ tɔm lɩ kpaɣ Pierre de Fermat nɛ Blaise Pascal pɛ-ɛgbaɣdɩyɛ alɩwaatʊ ɖooo pɩnaɣ 1654.

Pɩkɔma kpaɣɖʊ 17 hɛkʊ naalɛ ŋgʊ wɛɛ taa pɩlɩna Blaise Pascal, Pierre Fermat ñɩnʊ nɛ Christian Huygens tʊma yɔɔ pɩlɩna pɩfɛyɩ camɩyɛ hɔɔlɩŋ tɔm labɩtʊ yɔɔ kɛ pʊtɔma kalʊʊ tɔmpiye ñɔɔ pazɩ pazɩ wobu yɔɔ, nɛ ɖɔɖɔ tʊʊzʊʊ ɛsɩndaa wobu yɔɔ kɛ pʊtʊ yɔɔ pɩtɩŋna Jacob Bernouilli yɔɔ. Kpaɣɖʊ 18 lɛ Gabriel Cramer wɩlɩ tɔm natʊyʊ pɩlɩna cɔlɩyɛ pʊtɔma kalʊʊ nɛ tɩpɩsɩ kiɖe Diderot ɛsakuliye takayaɣ cɔlɔ, pama-kɛ kpaɣɖʊ kʊyʊmʊʊ ŋgʊ kɩ-tɛ tɛmtʊ alɩwaatʊ taa.

Haŋ tɛɛ kpazɩyʊ sɔsɔ kɔyɔ Pascal, kɛlɛ Christian Huygens susi De ratiociniis in ludo aleae tɔm (pʊ-tɔbʊʊ se mɩkaɣ yɔɔ tʊmɩyɛ labʊ) pɩnaɣ 1657. Takayaɣ kɩkalaɣ ŋga kiɖe piŋ kɛ pʊtɔma kalʊʊ ɖeɖe.