Ndɩ ndɩ ñʊŋ

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Ndɩ ndɩ ñʊŋ Tʊzʊʊ hɔɔlʊʊ, palaba ndɩ ndɩ ñʊŋ ɛzɩ siŋ ñʊŋ walanzɩ kpeekpe, ɛlɛ sɩ-taa peeɖe wɛɛ mayaɣ kikpeɣa nakayɛ payaa-kɛ se i ɛzɩ pamaʊ i2 = −1. Ɛsɔtaa mayaɣ kikotaɣ ŋga pokota-kɛ nɛ i yɔ wɛ ɖɔɖɔ ɛzɩ pamaʊ ɖɔɖɔ −1 : (−i)2 = −1. Papɩzɩɣ pama ndɩ ndɩ ñʊŋ kpeekpe se a + i b peeɖe lɛ a nɛ b pɛkɛʊ ñʊŋ siŋ siŋ. Tʊzʊʊ tʊmɩyɛ pa nɛ yɔ lɩzɩna ndɩ ndɩ ñʊŋ Jérôme Cardan, Raphaël Bombelli, Nicolo Fontana, dit Tartaglia, nɛ Ludovico Ferrari pɛkɛ Itaalii ɛjaɖɛ tɩnaa kpaɣɖʊ 15.

Pɩkpaɣ nɛ kpaɣɖʊ 19 wɛɛ taa pɩtɩŋna cɔjɔ layʊ Buée nɛ Jean-Robert Argand pɔ-ɖoŋ taa, nɛ pɩtasɩna Gauss nɛ Cauchy pa-tʊma yɔɔ kɛ siŋ lɩzʊʊ ndɩ ndɩ ñʊŋ tʊma kpa ɖoŋ.

Pɩ-tɛ matʊ ndʊ keekee taa lɛ pɩkɛ ñʊŋ kalʊʊ kpabɩtʊ lɩmaɣzɩyɛ nɖɩ lɛɣtʊ tʊmɩyɛ tʊ William Rowan Hamilton kaalaba yɔ ɖooo pɩnaɣ 1826 yɔ, kɛlɛ ɛtana-tʊ Irɩlandɩ tɔmɩŋ lɩzɩyaa ɛsɩndaa pɩnaɣ 1833, nɛ esusi-ʊ pɩnaɣ 1835. Carl Friedrich Gauss ɖɔɖɔ ñala tɩ-yɔɔ tʊmɩyɛ nɛ ɛna kʊyʊmtʊ ndʊ pɩnaɣ 1831 kɛlɛ ɛlɛ ñosusi ɛ-ñɩndʊ ndʊ pɩnaɣ 1837. Euler ɖɔɖɔ pɛcɛlɩɣ matʊ tʊ nɛ yɔ i kɛ √-1 pɩnaɣ 1777.

Papaza tʊmɩyɛ labɩnaʊ nɛ ñʊŋ ɛnʊ tomnasɩ ɖɔnɛ nɔmɔʊ taa lɛ ɖooo kpaɣɖʊ 19 alɩwaatʊ taa kɛ Augustin Fresnel tʊma taa pɩnaɣ 1823. Laatiki miŋ hɔɔlʊʊ taa lɛ, Arthur Edwin Kennelly, kpaɣ pɩnaɣ 1893, nɛ ɛwɩlɩɣ ɛzɩma papɩzɩɣ pekpeɣli Ohm waa paɣtʊ yɔ. Kɛlɛ Carl Friedrich Gauss yyebina nɛ tɔmpiye nɖɩ ɖɩtɔyɩ ɛyaa cɔlɔ.